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It is important to understand influenza in the tropics because of the significant burden in the region and its relevance to global influenza circulation. In this review, influenza burden, transmission dynamics, and their determinants in the tropics are discussed.
Environmental, cultural, and social conditions in the tropics are very diverse and often differ from those of temperate regions. Theories that account for and predict influenza dynamics in temperate regions do not fully explain influenza epidemic patterns observed in the tropics. Routine surveillance and household studies have been useful in understanding influenza dynamics in the tropics, but these studies have been limited to only some regions; there is still a lack of information regarding influenza burden and transmission dynamics in many tropical countries.
Further studies in the tropics will provide useful insight on many questions that remain. Acute respiratory infection remains a global leading cause of death [ 1 ], and influenza is among the most important causes of severe infections and deaths every year.
Beforeseasonal influenza causedtoinfluenza-related respiratory deaths annually [ 3 ]. Influenza in the tropics is important from a global perspective particularly since phylogenetic analyses have suggested that the tropics contributed substantially to the global circulation of influenza viruses. Influenza in the tropics has unique epidemiologic features including a more variable seasonality compared to that observed in temperate regions and year-round circulation of influenza viruses in some countries.
In addition, the demographic features of some populations are particularly favorable for influenza spread.
For instance, many tropical countries have more children and more individuals sharing a living space compared to most temperate regions [ 5 ]. Household transmission of influenza occurs frequently in the tropics, and household studies have provided an invaluable natural setting to investigate influenza transmission, resulting in a much better understanding of the environmental, host, and viral determinants of transmission.
In this review, we describe the burden and transmission dynamics of influenza in the tropics. Regional differences in influenza seasonality and transmissibility will be examined in relation to climatic factors, and household transmission studies are presented to illustrate the host and viral determinants of transmission.
Genetic sequence data from tropical regions are becoming more widely available, and these data will be discussed to highlight the contribution of the tropics in the emergence and global circulation of influenza. Finally, since avian influenza infection has been re-emerging in the tropics, we will discuss published findings from outbreak investigations and serosurveillance reports that suggest transmission of avian influenza from birds to humans and between humans in the tropics remains very limited.
In temperate regions, influenza-related deaths are estimated to range from 4 to 20 deaths perpersons [ 67 ]. Although more than 2. Influenza burden in terms of hospitalization and mortality has been reported in some tropical regions, and these estimates are very useful indicators of the risk of severe influenza infection.Extrafloral nectar of plants and honeydew of hemipterans are the common mediators of facultative interactions that involve ants as a mobile strategy of defence.
The outcome of these interactions can vary from mutualistic to commensalistic or even antagonistic, depending on the ecological context and the interacting species. Here, we explore a novel, three-partner interaction involving ants, the coreid Dersagrena subfoveolata Hemiptera and the extrafloral nectaries EFNs bearing plant Senna aphylla Fabaceae in semi-arid Northwest Argentina.
We surveyed natural areas and conducted ant exclusion experiments, to understand how each pairwise interaction influences the overall outcome among the three interacting parts. The outcome of the interactions was assessed for experimental plants as the reproductive output and herbivore abundances and for coreids as predator abundances. We found that the coreids occurred exclusively on S. Coreid occurrence and abundance depended on ant densities, which in turn, was determined by the presence of actively secreting EFNs.
Coreid and ant presence did not influence plant reproductive success, and ants provided to coreids some biotic defence, mainly against vespid wasp predators, but had no effect on non-coreid herbivores.
We conclude that the interaction outcome is commensalistic between ants and plants assuming that EF nectar is not costly for the plantantagonistic between coreids and plants, and mutualistic between coreids and ants. The sum of all outcomes is net positive effect for ants and coreids, and net slightly negative to neutral for plants.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Rent this article via DeepDyve. J Arid Environ — Biotropica — Alves-Silva E, Del-Claro K Fire triggers the activity of extrafloral nectaries, but ants fail to protect the plant against herbivores in a neotropical savanna. Arthropod Plant Interact — Linking dominance hierarchies and seed dispersal ability in myrmecochory interactions. AoB Plants 6:plu Naturwissenschaften — Billick I, Tonkel K The relative importance of spatial vs.
Ecology — Insectes Soc — Bronstein JL Conditional outcomes in mutualistic interactions. Trends Ecol Evol — Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 44— Bull South Calif Acad Sci — Buckley RC Interaction between ants and membracid bugs decreases growth and seed set of host plant bearing extrafloral nectaries. Oecologia —Sheffield Plate is a cheaper substitute for sterling, produced by fusing sheets of silver to the top and bottom of a sheet of copper or base metal.
This 'silver sandwich' was then worked into finished pieces. At first it was only put on one side and later was on top and bottom. Modern electroplating was invented by Italian chemist Luigi V. Brugnatelli in Brugnatelli used his colleague Alessandro Volta's invention of five years earlier, the voltaic pile, to facilitate the first electrodeposition.
Unfortunately, Brugnatelli's inventions were repressed by the French Academy of Sciences and did not become used in general industry for the following thirty years. Silver plate or electroplate is formed when a thin layer of pure or sterling silver is deposited electrolytically on the surface of a base metal. Byscientists in Britain and Russia had independently devised metal deposition processes similar to Brugnatelli's for the copper electroplating of printing press plates.
Soon after, John Wright of Birmingham, England, discovered that potassium cyanide was a suitable electrolyte for gold and silver electroplating. Wright's associates, George Elkington and Henry Elkington were awarded the first patents for electroplating in These two then founded the electroplating industry in Birmingham England from where it spread around the world.
E P a generic mark for Electro Plated, often used together with a "crown". Silver Dictionary' of A Small Collection of Antique Silver and Objects of vertua pages richly illustrated website offering all you need to know about antique silver, sterling silver, silverplate, Sheffield plate, electroplate silver, silverware, flatware, tea services and tea complements, marks and hallmarks, articles, books, auction catalogs, famous silversmiths Tiffany, Gorham, Jensen, Elkingtonhistory, oddities This is a page of A Small Collection of Antique Silver and Objects of vertua pages richly illustrated website offering all you need to know about antique silver, sterling silver, silverplate, sheffield plate, electroplate silver, silverware, flatware, tea services and tea complements, marks and hallmarks, articles, books, auction catalogs, famous silversmiths Tiffany, Gorham, Jensen, Elkingtonhistory, oddities E P K a generic mark meaning of 'K' unknown.
The silver mounts were struck in thin silver from dies cut in long strips, and when filled with solder composed of lead and tin they could readily be bent into any shape or form required. Active at 80 Bull St, Birmingham. M White Metal, This is a page of 'The What is? These pages were useful?The neuropeptide oxytocin has been implicated in the mediation of several forms of affiliative behavior including parental care, grooming, and sex behavior. Here we demonstrate that species from the genus Microtus voles selected for differences in social affiliation show contrasting patterns of oxytocin receptor expression in brain.
By in vitro receptor autoradiography with an iodinated oxytocin analogue, specific binding to brain oxytocin receptors was observed in both the monogamous prairie vole Microtus ochrogaster and the polygamous montane vole Microtus montanus. In the prairie vole, oxytocin receptor density was highest in the prelimbic cortex, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, nucleus accumbens, midline nuclei of the thalamus, and the lateral aspects of the amygdala.
These brain areas showed little binding in the montane vole, in which oxytocin receptors were localized to the lateral septum, ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, and cortical nucleus of the amygdala. Similar differences in brain oxytocin receptor distribution were observed in two additional species, the monogamous pine vole Microtus pinetorum and the polygamous meadow vole Microtus pennsylvanicus.
Receptor distributions for two other neurotransmitter systems implicated in the mediation of social behavior, benzodiazepines, and mu opioids did not show comparable species differences.
Furthermore, in the montane vole, which shows little affiliative behavior except during the postpartum period, brain oxytocin receptor distribution changed within 24 hr of parturition, concurrent with the onset of maternal behavior. We suggest that variable expression of the oxytocin receptor in brain may be an important mechanism in evolution of species-typical differences in social bonding and affiliative behavior.
National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Copyright notice. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract The neuropeptide oxytocin has been implicated in the mediation of several forms of affiliative behavior including parental care, grooming, and sex behavior.
Images in this article Image on p. Image on p. Differences in affiliative behavior, pair bonding, and vaginal cytology in two species of vole Microtus ochrogaster and M.
J Comp Psychol. Infant's response to social separation reflects adult differences in affiliative behavior: a comparative developmental study in prairie and montane voles. Dev Psychobiol. Beta-endorphin concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid of monkeys are influenced by grooming relationships. The biology of social attachments: opiates alleviate separation distress.
Biol Psychiatry. Behavioural similarities between mother rats and benzodiazepine-treated non-maternal animals. Psychopharmacology Berl ; 86 3 — Rat pup ultrasonic isolation calls: possible mediation by the benzodiazepine receptor complex.
Pharmacol Biochem Behav. Oxytocin--a neuropeptide for affiliation: evidence from behavioral, receptor autoradiographic, and comparative studies. Quantitative receptor autoradiography using [3H]ultrofilm: application to multiple benzodiazepine receptors.
J Neurosci Methods.
Prenatal stress has long-term effects on brain opiate receptors. Brain Res. Eur J Pharmacol. Ontogeny of oxytocin receptors in rat forebrain: a quantitative study.Medically reviewed by Drugs. Last updated on Oct 17, Note: This document contains side effect information about azathioprine. Some of the dosage forms listed on this page may not apply to the brand name Imuran.
Common side effects of Imuran include: infection, leukopenia, and vomiting. See below for a comprehensive list of adverse effects.
Applies to azathioprine : oral tablet. Chronic immunosuppression with azathioprine increases risk of malignancy in humans.
Reports of malignancy include post-transplant lymphoma and hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma HSTCL in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Physicians using this drug should be very familiar with this risk as well as with the mutagenic potential to both men and women and with possible hematologic toxicities. Inform patients of the malignancy risks. Along with its needed effects, azathioprine the active ingredient contained in Imuran may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention.
Check with your doctor immediately if any of the following side effects occur while taking azathioprine:. Some side effects of azathioprine may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects.
Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them:. For Healthcare Professionals Applies to azathioprine: compounding powder, intravenous powder for injection, oral tablet.
The principal and potentially serious toxic effects of azathioprine the active ingredient contained in Imuran are hematologic and gastrointestinal. Risk of secondary infection and malignancy is also significant. Frequency and severity of side effects depend on dose and duration of azathioprine as well as on underlying disease or concomitant therapies. Hematologic toxicities and neoplasia were reported more often in renal homograft recipients than in patients using azathioprine for rheumatoid arthritis.
Rare Less than 0. Frequency not reported : Bleeding, increased mean corpuscular volume and red cell hemoglobin content reversible, dose-related [ Ref ]. Bone marrow suppression is dose related and is the most common cause for dosage reductions.